The EVA system (Brandt et al., 2013a, b) is based on the impact-pathway chain (e.g. Friedrich and Bickel, 2001), consisting of the emissions, transport and chemical transformation of air pollutants, population exposure, health impacts and the associated external costs. The EVA system requires hourly gridded concentration input from a regional-scale CTM as well as gridded population data, exposure-response functions (ERFs) for health impacts, and economic valuations of the impacts from air pollution. As the health outcomes are age-dependent, the total population data has been broken down to a set of age intervals being babies (under 9 months), children (under 15), adult (above 15), above 30, and above 65. The EVA system can be used to assess the number of various health outcomes including different morbidity outcomes as well as short-term (acute) and long-term (chronic) mortality, related to exposure of O3, CO and SO2 (short-term) and PM2.5 (long-term). Furthermore, impact on infant mortality in response to exposure of PM2.5 is calculated. The morbidity outcomes include chronic bronchitis, restricted activity days, congestive heart failure, lung cancer, respiratory and cerebrovascular hospital admissions, asthmatic children (under 15 years) and adults (above 15 years), which includes bronchodilator use, cough, and lower respiratory symptoms.
In frame of the REEEM project, EVA model is used to calculate the emission unit costs for each individual European country for a number of primary pollutants including NOx, SOx and PM2.5. Furthermore, in order to assess the non-linear relationships between pollutants concentrations, emissions and their health impacts, different emission perturbation are introduced to the underlying chemistry and transport model targeting each of the individual pollutants and important emission sectors such as the energy production and traffic. The calculated unit costs will then be used in the TIMES PanEU model.