EcoSense is an integrated assessment model that estimates and assesses health and environmental impacts caused by the release of toxic substances and their precursors into the environment. The tool implements the Impact Pathway Approach developed within the ExternE project series ( Based on emissions of classic air pollutants, annual mean concentrations of Particulate Matter, NO2 and Ozone are first estimated by applying a parameterized atmospheric dispersion model based on the EMEP Unified Model (, which allocates changes in concentrations on grid-level to changes in emissions on source level (Friedrich et al., 2011; Bickel und Friedrich, 2005). With concentrations-response functions as recommended by the WHO (WHO, 2013), gridded health impacts are estimated. Additionally, environmental impacts such as biodiversity losses can be estimated as pdf/m² (potentially disappeared fraction of species per m²). Finally, all impacts are translated into monetary values reflecting damage costs, either based on a willingness-to-pay or standard price approach. These values can then be used for cost-benefit analyses.


Bickel, P., Friedrich, R., 2005. ExternE – Externalities of Energy Methodology, 2005 Update, 287 pp.

Friedrich, R., Kuhn, A., Bessagnet, B., Blesl, M., Bruchof, D., Cowie, H., 2011. INTARESE / HEIMTSA D153/D5.3.1/2: Final report of the Common Case Study, 263 pp.

WHO, 2013. Health risks of air pollution in Europe – HRAPIE project. Recommendations for concentration–response functions for cost–benefit analysis of particulate matter, ozone and nitrogen dioxide. Online available at:,-ozone-and-nitrogen-dioxide

EcoSense model FACT SHEET available here.